Summary – Section 5(1)

Summary – Section 5(1) (Facts 48 to 61)

In this section we discuss The Structure of our Mother Tongue (1 of 2)

Fact 48 – In this fact we discuss the function of cases in Sanskrit. Nouns take on different  endings to indicate their function (such as subject, direct object and indirect object) in a sentence. The forms of these different functions with respect to the verb are called grammatical cases. Now, these cases assume many more functions than just being the

object or instrument in a sentence. In the main part of the fact we discuss some of the main functions of the various cases.

Fact 49 – We discuss the fact that nouns (and adjectives) in Sanskrit are normally classified based on their endings (the ending of the noun and adjective stems) and on whether they are masculine, feminine or neuter. There are many sub-classifications within these classifications. Nouns of these classifications take different case endings. Now, there is what is called a set of standard case endings. These case endings have been identified and listed by Pāṇini.

We also discuss the fact that the seven cases that exist in Sanskrit are by no means comprehensive. Finnish, for example, has 15 cases. And, Tsez, a North-East Caucasian language is said to have 64 cases!

As a contrast we look at French and Hindi  which have completely got rid of cases (except in

pronouns). French uses prepositions and Hindi postpositions.

Fact 50, 51 and 52 – In these three ‘facts’ we discuss the declension paradigms of different types of stems ending in vowels and consonants.

Fact 53, 54 – In ‘fact’ 53 we look at declensional endings of pronouns and in 54 we look at the declension of numbers.

Fact 55 – We start looking at conjugation and say that conjugation in our Mother Tongue recognises distinctions between tense, mode or mood, voice, person and number. Along with the conjugation, we also have to recognise participles, infinitives, gerunds (continuatives) and gerundives. There are also a set of secondary conjugations, a set of compound conjugations and a set of periphrastic conjugations. There are also tertiary conjugations that are secondary conjugations of the secondary conjugations.

We also say that primary conjugation can be classified into four distinct tense systems: present, perfect, aorist and future.

Fact 56 – Ancient Indian grammarians divided verbal roots into ten classes based on how the stem of the present system conjugation is derived from the root. These ten classes are super-classified into two – themaic and athematic verbs.  We also discuss  that there are two types of conjugational  endings–one for the active voice and one for the middle voice. These two voices exist in ancient Greek also. So, they go a long way back in our Mother Tongue’s evolution. 

Fact 57 – We go into details of the present system.

Fact 58 – We discuss the fact that the class 3 conjugational stem is made by reduplication of the root. Reduplication is a process where a part, or the whole of a root, stem or word is repeated for strengthening them for emphasis, intensification, indicating repetition, or indicating plurality. Reduplication is found in many languages including Hindi, English and Greek.

Fact 59, 60, 61 – We discuss present and past participles, infinitives and gerundives.

Click on the links below to visit the other summary pages


Summary – Section 1

Summary – Section 2

Summary – Section 3

Summary – Section 4

Summary – Section 5 (1)

Summary – Section 5 (2)

Summary – Section 6

Summary – Section 7

Summary – Section 8 (1)

Summary – Section 8 (2)

Summary – Section 9